The layer of Greenhouse Gases (GHG), including carbon dioxide (CO2),, methane, nitrous oxide and others, in their optimum concentration in Earth’s atmosphere, acts like a protective blanket which maintains its temperature and the natural ecosystem. Lately, anthropogenic (human induced) activities, mainly burning of fossil fuels, have resulted in increasing the concentration of these gases which in turn trap extra heat and increase Earth’s average temperature leading to climate change. This in turn leads to a wide ranging impact including sea level rise, melting of snow and glaciers, changes in weather patterns, increased frequency and intensity of extreme events and natural disasters etc.
The Climate Change Division looks after the issues related to climate change, including the International negotiations and domestic policies and actions. The Division is also responsible for submission of National Communications (NATCOMs) and the Biennial Update Reports (BURS) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC) is the nodal Ministry for climate change negotiations under UNFCCC. In order to create and strengthen the scientific and analytical capacity for assessment of climate change in the country, different studies has been initiated under the Climate Change Action Programme (CCAP), including National Carbonaceous Aerosols Programme (NCAP), Long Term Ecological Observatories (LTEO) Programme, and GHG
During the year 2017-18, many important bilateral and multilateral meetings and negotiations, including 23rd Conference of the Parties (COP-23) to the UNFCCC, were held in which Hon’ble Minister, EF&CC and senior officials of the Ministry participated.
National communication and Biennial Update Report submitted to the UNFCCC: India is a Party to the UNFCCC. The Convention requires all the Parties to furnish information on implementation of the Convention in the form of periodic National Communications. India furnished its Initial National Communication in 2004 and Second National Communication in 2012 to UNFCCC. Conference of Parties to the UNFCCC in its sixteenth session (COP-16) decided that developing countries should also submit Biennial Update Report (BUR) as an update to the most recently submitted national communication. India furnished its first Biennial Update Report (BUR-1) on 22nd January, 2016. BUR-1 contains information on National Circumstances, National Greenhouse Gas Inventory, Mitigation Actions, Domestic Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) arrangements, Finance, Technology and Capacity Building Needs, and Support Received. India’s first BUR highlighted that 12% of India’s GHG emissions were offset by carbon sink action of forests and croplands. It also highlighted that India’s per capita GHG emission in 2010 was 1.56 tCO2 equivalent which is less than one third of the world’s per capita emissions and far below than many developed and developing countries. In BUR-1, 137 national level and 286 state level policies and measures relevant to climate change have been mapped on non-exhaustive basis. BUR-1 stated that a reduction of emission intensity of GDP by about 12% between 2005 and 2010 has been achieved.
As per the requirements of UNFCCC, all BURS undergo a process of International Consultation and Analysis (ICA) which is conducted through a two-step process, a technical analysis by team of technical experts and a facilitative sharing of views (FSV). The process for India’s first BUR was concluded successfully in May 2017. A Facilitative Sharing of Views (FSV) workshop was held on 15th May, 2017 under the aegis of 46th session of Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) to UNFCCC. During the FSV workshop, India made presented its BUR. A number of questions were asked, which mainly focused on substantial increase in solar capacity achieved in 2016 over 2015 and domestic Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) system. India’s presentation was widely acknowledged and applauded by the participating countries.Currently the Ministry is preparing India’s second Biennial Update Report and Third National Communication to be submitted to UNFCCC.
National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC): Government of India is implementing the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) with a focus on promoting understanding of climate change and establishing linkage between adaptation and mitigation consistent with the national priority for achieving sustainable development. It comprises of eight national missions representing multipronged, long term and integrated strategies for achieving key goals in the context of climate change. These missions focus on specific areas of Solar Energy, Enhanced Energy Efficiency, Sustainable Habitat, Water, Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem, Green India, Sustainable Agriculture and Strategic knowledge for Climate Change anchored by various Ministries.
All national missions were approved by the Prime Minister’s Council on Climate Change (PMCCC) and are being implemented now. The Missions are under constant review by the Prime Minister’s Council on Climate Change. An Executive Committee on Climate Change (ECCC) under the Chairmanship of Principal Secretary to Prime Minister has been set up for assisting the Prime Minister’s Council on Climate Change in evolving a coordinating response to issues relating to climate change with regular monitoring of the eight National missions along with other initiatives on Climate Change and coordinating with various agencies.
State Action Plan on Climate Change (SAPCC): With the formulation of the NAPCC, the need to achieve coherence between actions at national and sub-national level became apparent. Therefore, the Ministry motivated the State Governments to prepare their State Action Plans on Climate Change (SAPCC) in line with the strategies outlined in NAPCC. So far, 32 States/UTs namely Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Kerala, Karnataka, Lakshadweep, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Puducherry, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal have prepared their SAPCCs.
MoEF&CC has also provided financial support to states for enhancing their capacities for undertaking climate change activities. A sum of Rs. 10 lakhs has been provided to 19 states for strengthening capacity of nodal agencies for implementation of SAPCCs. Projects on adaptation and mitigation measures are also funded as demonstration projects under CCAP. Till date, three demonstration projects in Punjab, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu have been sanctioned.
National Adaptation Fund on Climate Change (NAFCC): National Adaptation Fund on Climate Change (NAFCC) was launched in 2015 with an initial outlay of Rs. 350 crore to meet the cost of adaptation to climate change for the State and Union Territories of India that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. The overall aim of the fund is to support concrete adaptation activities which are not covered under on-going activities through the schemes of State and National Government that reduce the adverse effects of climate change facing community, sector and states. The Scheme will be continuing beyond 12th Five Year Plan till 31st March, 2020 with an additional outlay of Rs. 364 Crore. The Fund is meant to assist National and State level activities to meet the cost of adaptation measures in areas that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse impacts of climate Change. The Scheme has been taken as Central Sector Scheme with National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) as the National Implementing Entity (NIE). Besides, enhancing adaptive capacity at national and state level, national conference / workshop, awareness/ information dissemination, Research and Development and establishing a coordination and monitoring unit have also been proposed.
Till date 23 projects have been approved at a total cost of Rs. 483.80 Crore and Rs. 263.31 Crore have been sanctioned. The projects approved under the scheme are in the initial stages of implementation.
Climate Change Action Programme (CCAP): Climate Change Action Programme (CCAP) is a central scheme which was approved by the Cabinet in January 2014 at a total cost of Rs. 290 crore for duration of five years. Its objective is to create and strengthen the scientific and analytical capacity for assessment of climate change in the country, putting in place appropriate institutional framework for scientific and policy initiatives and implementation of climate change related actions in the context of sustainable development. Some of the components of the CCAP scheme include the National Carbonaceous Aerosols Programme (NCAP), Long Term Ecological Observatories (LTEO), and Coordinated Studies on Climate Change for North East Region (CSCCNER).
NCAP is a multi-institutional programme developed with a view to monitor and study carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon, and has three components viz., (i) Working Group I: Monitoring and assessing impacts of black carbon on snow undertaken by Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST) (ii) Working Group II: Observational activities relating to aerosol and black carbon by Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) and Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) (iii) Working Group III: Inventory and modeling of carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon being undertaken by MoEFCC, which also coordinates overall activities under NCAP. NCAP Working Group III has been officially launched by Hon’ble Minister, EF&CC on 7th July 2017 at IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai and is being implemented by a consortium of 17 institutions led by IIT Bombay.
LTEO is another project under the CCAP scheme with a total budget allocation of Rs. 40 crore for duration of 5 years. It aims at creating a network of field sites at various ecological regions in the country viz. Western Himalayas, Eastern Himalayas, North-Western Arid Zone, Central Indian Forests, Western Ghats, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Jammu & Kashmir, and Sundarbans, for undertaking long term observations of the effects of climate change. These field sites will be used by several institutions and scientists with expertise in various disciplines to identify patterns and drivers of change in the natural ecosystems. The project will focus on monitoring climatic variables, carbon stock, hydrology, groundwater, forests dynamics, sensitivity of tree species, fire ecology etc. The Science Plan of LTEO was released by Hon’ble Minister, EF&CC on the sideline of the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP-21) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) at Paris, France in 2015. Under the project, it is proposed to establish 31 weather stations across all the LTEO field sites for recording bioclimatic variable etc. A Coordination Cell will be established at the Centre for Ecological Science, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore for proper implementation of the LTEO project. 11 activities have been shortlisted for funding under this project during the year 2017.
India’s post-2020 climate goals: For post-2020 period, in response to the decisions of the Conference to the Parties, India submitted its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) to the UNFCCC on 2nd October, 2015, outlining the climate actions intended to be taken under the Paris agreement. The eight goals put forth by India in its NDC are:
- To put forward and further propagate a healthy and sustainable way of living based on traditions and values of conservation and moderation.
- To adopt a climate friendly and a cleaner path than the one followed hitherto by others at corresponding level of economic development.
- To reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33 to 35 percent by 2030 from 2005
- To achieve about 40 percent cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel based energy resources by 2030 with the help of transfer of technology and low cost international finance including from Green Climate Fund (GCF).
- To create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent through additional forest and tree cover by 2030.
- To better adapt to climate change by enhancing investments in development programmes in sectors vulnerable to climate change, particularly agriculture, water resources, Himalayan region, coastal regions, health and disaster management.
- To mobilize domestic and new & additional funds from developed countries to implement the above mitigation and adaptation actions in view of the resource required and the resource gap.
- To build capacities, create domestic framework and international architecture for quick diffusion of cutting edge climate technology in India and for joint collaborative R&D for such future
For preparing the of roadmap for implementation of India’s NDC in post-2020 period, in the year 2016, the MoEF&CC constituted an NDC Implementation committee Chaired by Secretary, EF&CC, and six thematic Sub-committees, involving key
Ministries and Departments of the Government of India. The committee and subcommittees are working on to identify specific policies and actions aimed at achieving the NDC goals. They are also working on to indicate the financial outlays and technology interventions needed from domestic and international sources at various stages to achieve these goals. The consultation meetings of the NDC Implementation committee and sub-committees were being held after their constitution and continue to be held in the financial year 2017-18.
International Negotiations: The financial year 2017-18 witnessed a number of bilateral and multilateral meetings on climate change where Hon’ble Minister, Environment, Forest and Climate Change and senior officials of the Ministry participated. These meetings were crucial in run up to the 23rd Conference of Parties to UNFCCC held from 6th – 17th November, 2017 in Bonn, Germany.
Delegates participated in the Informal Meeting of Heads of Delegation in Rabat on 07-08 September 2017, Like Minded Developing Countries (LMDC) meeting held on 14-16 August 2017 at Penang, Malaysia, 24th BASIC Ministerial Meeting on Climate Change held on 11th April 2017 in Beijing, China, 25th BASIC Ministerial Meeting held on 13th November 2017 in Bonn, Germany, Ministerial meeting on Climate Action held on 15 – 16 September 2017 in Montreal, Canada, and Pre-COP Ministerial Meeting of the UNFCCC held on 16-18 October, 2017 in Nadi, Fiji.
The 23rd Conference of Parties (COP 23) to UNFCCC was held from 6th – 17th November 2017 in Bonn, Germany. Dr. Harsh Vardhan, Hon’ble Minister, EF&CC led an inter-ministerial delegation that participated in the COP 23. This was the second COP since the adoption of the Paris Agreement at COP 21 in 2015 and since the Agreement entered into force on 4 November 2016.
The key outcome of COP 23 was decision 1/CP.23, ‘Fiji Momentum for Implementation’. The decision calls for enhanced Pre-2020 Implementation and Ambition, reiterates the overall Paris Agreement Work Programme, and the design of the Facilitative Dialogue, termed by COP 23 Presidency of Fiji as the Talanoa Dialogue. Despite continuous resistance, Pre-2020 actions were brought back on the forefront with the persistent efforts of India. It now forms a major Part of final outcome with concrete steps to accelerate and enhance pre-2020 action and ambition. It includes high level focus from both UNFCCC secretariat and COP Presidency as well as request to UN Secretary General for his intervention in speeding up the ratification of Doha Amendment to Kyoto Protocol. A number of procedural decisions were taken regarding the evolution of rules/ guidelines/ modalities for the implementation of Paris Agreement including guidance for Nationally Determined Contributions, adaptation communication, modalities, procedures and guidelines for the transparency framework for action and support, global stocktake, compliance mechanism, technology framework, and cooperative (market and non-market) approaches under the Paris Agreement India participated in the Conference with a constructive and positive approach with the arm to protect India’s long-term interests and its developmental priorities. India,s position was firmly rooted in the core principles of equity and Common but Differentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities (CBDR-RC). lndia also underscored then. importance of fulfilling the commitment of developed countries to achieve the goal of mobilizing USD 100 billion annually by 2020 and further scaling up thereafter. As a result, developed countries have been requested to prepare their next round of updated biennial submissions on strategies and approaches for scaling up climate finance for 2018-2020, with a view to updating information available on a pathway towards the goal of jointly mobilizing US$100 billion per year by 2020. A high-level ministerial dialogue will also be organized in 2018 on access to climate finance. India was also able to incorporate equity and sustainable lifestyles in appropriate texts.
A number of Ministerial level bilateral meetings were also held during COP 23 including with Prime Minister of Fiji, Mr. Frank Bainimarama (COP 23 Presidency), United Arab Emirates, Australia, Norway, Finland, Turkey, Marshall Islands, European Union, Ecuador, UK, and Bangladesh.
India Pavilion set up at COP 23: The India Pavilion setup during COP 23 was a major attraction amongst the visitors with approx. 10000-12000 people visiting the pavilion. The India pavilion became a platform to bring together various stakeholders such as Central Ministries, State Governments/ Departments, Think Tanks, Civil Society organisations, etc. to deliberate and discuss various climate change
related topics. Twenty-two side event sessions were organised at India pavilion including presentations and panel discussions on various thematic areas in climate change. These 22 sessions spread across 2 weeks were appreciated and well attended with active participation of more than 1000 people from various countries.
Curtain Raiser Event: The India Pavilion also hosted the Curtain Raiser Event for International Solar Alliance’s (ISA’s) upcoming Founding Conference which also featured an extended panel discussion with international industry leaders covering project implementation, financing, technology transfer, and collaboratively building a global solar market.
Release of book ‘Samanvay’ at India Pavilion: A book titled “Samanvay – Harmonizing Traditions and Modernity” was launched at the India Pavilion by Dr. Harsh Vardhan, Hon’ble Minister, EF&CC. The book highlights the importance of integrating traditional wisdom and modern technologies/concepts. This book depicts the sustainable consumption patterns of India in comparison to other countries. It also showcases the harmonisation of India’s traditional practices with the modern ones, leapfrogging over the energy-intensive intermediate phase for a low-carbon growth. Drawing from the experiences and trends resulting from conventional consumption patterns, the document reinforces the need to follow a sustainable lifestyle at the individual and community level by stressing upon the traditional practices that are rooted in our culture and can easily find a way to our modern lifestyle, making it more sustainable and environment-friendly. The book discusses relevant national and local level strategies to address climate change, with a view to encourage sustainable practices originating from the roots of climate-friendly Indian lifestyle.
Yoga Sessions: In an attempt to showcase India’s age-old tradition of sustainable lifestyle, daily Yoga sessions, conducted by trained Yoga instructors, were organised at the India pavilion. These sessions witnessed enthusiastic participation of visitors from different countries.
Cooperation with bilateral and multilateral donors on climate change: The Ministry has been implementing several projects with the assistance of bilateral and multilateral funding agencies such as Deutsche GesellschaftfOrInter nationaleZusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, The Department for International Development (DFID) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
Since 2002, GIZ has been supporting the Climate Division of MoEFCC in strengthening the Designated National Authority (DNA), support in Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). MOEFCC and GIZ jointly organised a workshop on 27th June 2017 in New Delhi on ‘Market mechanisms as a means to effectively implement India’s climate mitigation objectives’. A project on Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) is also operational to support the MoEF&CC. Further, Climate Change Adaptation in Rural Areas of India (CCA-RAI) project being implemented at national and state level for financing, planning, implementing and for the monitoring of climate adaptation measures.Two projects under Indo-EU Cooperation are also operational viz. 1. Indo-EU Technical Cooperation for Environment in India and 2. India-EU Cooperation on Clean technologies and Energy Efficiency for Eco-Cities.
Climate Change Innovation Programme, a partnership initiative between MoEF&CC and DFID has been supporting six states namely, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Kerala, Maharashtra and Odisha, in implementing the SAPCC. Through Climate Change Innovation Programme (CCIP), the state Governments are provided with technical assistance in preparing and refining SAPCCs. It also assists in preparing sectoral action plans and projects to address climate change adaptation in thematic areas such as water, urban flooding, agriculture, forestry, coastal vulnerability, health as well as securing finance for implementing the plans
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM): The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has been a flagship programme addressing climate change mitigation and simultaneously giving an opportunity to developing countries in meeting their sustainable development objectives. CDM allows emission reduction or removal projects in developing countries to generate carbon offset credit, each equivalent to one tonne of carbon dioxide. These certified emission reduction credits (CERs) could be traded, sold and used by industrialized countries to meet part of their emission reduction targets under Kyoto Protocol.
The Government of India has set up a National CDM Authority (NCDMA) in December 2003 with Secretary, Environment, Forest and Climate Change as the Chairman and it consists of various Secretaries, such as of External Affairs, Finance, Power, Industrial Policy and
Promotion, New and Renewable Energy, Planning Commission, and Department of Science and Technology as Members to consider various projects for grant of Host Country Approval (HCA) from Sustainable Development point of view. Some of India’s achievements in CDM are:
- As on 26th November, 2017, 1653 out of total 7788 projects registered by the CDM Executive Board are from India, which so far is the second highest in the world.
- As on date, Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) issued to Indian projects is 235 million (12.6%) of the total 1869 million CERs issued.
- The National CDM Authority (NCDMA) in the Ministry has accorded Host Country Approval to 3028 projects. These projects are in the sectors of energy efficiency, fuel switching, industrial processes, municipal solid waste, renewable energy and forestry spread across the country (covering all states in India).
- About 90% of the CDM projects are developed by private sectors which has facilitated huge private sector investments in the country.
World Bank Partnership for Market Readiness (PMR): India’s proposal to develop a voluntary carbon market was approved by the World Bank under Partnership for Market Readiness (PMR). The PMR Project aims to support and incentivize a market and piloting new approaches that allow emission reductions in a cost effective manner, while also addressing other priorities such as incentivizing waste, energy security, growth and development in the country.
The 8 million US Dollar grant allotted to India under the PMR Project will be utilised to develop voluntary carbon market in waste management and Micro, Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (MSME) sectors with carbon credits. These sectors have been identified to have significant mitigation potential and the ability to contribute to India achieving its NDCs targets. Background work regarding the same has been initiated, and the Project is aimed to be completed in 2020.
Ozone Layer Protection: Ozone, a tri-atomic molecule of oxygen is formed from oxygen naturally in the upper levels of the Earth’s atmosphere by high-energy Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the Sun. The UV radiation breaks down oxygen molecules, releasing free atoms, some of which bond with other oxygen molecule to form ozone. About 90 per cent of ozone formed in this way lies between 10 and 50 kilometers above the Earth’s surface, called the Stratosphere. The ozone found in this part of the atmosphere is called the ozone layer.
The ozone layer absorbs all the harmful UV-B radiations emanating from the Sun. It protects plant and animal life from UV-B radiation. The UV-B radiation has the potential to cause skin cancer, eye cataract, suppress body’s immune system, decrease crop yield etc., which led to the adoption of the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer in 1985 and the
Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer in 1987. The mandate of the Montreal Protocol is to phase out the production and consumption of the Ozone Depleting Substances (ODSs). India is a Party to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer and it’s all the amendments/adjustments.
India has been producing and using nine of the 96 ODSs controlled under the Montreal Protocol. These are Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) viz. CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113; Carbon Tetrachloride (CTC), HYdrochloro-fluorocarbons (HCFCs), Halon-1211, Halon1301, Methyl Chloroform and Methyl Bromide. Out of these, all ODSs except HCFCs, have been phased out. Currently HCFCs are being phased out as per the accelerated phase out schedule of the Montreal Protocol
The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC) handles the work relating to ozone layer protection and implementation of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.
The MoEF&CC has set up the Ozone Cell as a National Ozone Unit (NOU) to render necessary services for effective and timely implementation of the Protocol and its ODS phase-out program in India. The Ministry has also constituted an Empowered Steering Committee (ESC) Chaired by the Secretary (EF&CC) which is supported by two Standing Committees viz. Technology and Finance Standing Committee (TFSC) and Standing Committee on Monitoring. The ESC is responsible for overall implementation of the Montreal Protocol provisions, review of various policy and implementation options, project approval and monitoring.
A detailed India Country Program for phase out of ODSs was prepared in 1993 to ensure the phase out of ODSs according to the National Industrial Development Strategy, without undue burden to both consumers and industry by accessing the Protocol’s Financial Mechanism in accordance with the stipulated phase-out schedule of the Montreal Protocol. The Country Program was updated in 2006.
The Project Management Unit (PMU) was set up in 2002 to implement the National ODS Phase-out Plans.
The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and its Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and its Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer are the international treaties specific for the protection of the Stratospheric Ozone (Ozone layer). The Montreal Protocol has been recognized as the most successful international environ-mental treaty in history. It has been universally ratified and all the 197 United Nations Member countries of the world are the Parties to the Vienna Convention and its Montreal Protocol. In the 29 years of operation of the Montreal Protocol, extraordinary international cooperation under this agreement has led to phase-out of production
and consumption of several major ODSs such as CFCs. CTC and halons globally from 1st January, 2010. The production and consumption of Methyl Chloroform has been phased out globally as on 1.1.2015, with possible essential use exemptions. The production and consumption of Methyl Bromide has been phased out globally as on 1.1.2015, except use in quarantine and pre-shipment applications. Global systematic observations have confirmed that atmospheric levels of key ODSs are declining and it is estimated that with continued, full implementation of the Montreal Protocol’s provisions, the global ozone layer should return to pre-1980 levels by around the middle of this century. The Montreal Protocol has also delivered substantial climate benefits.
The Protocol is currently addressing the phase-out of HCFCs with an accelerated phase-out schedule.
The UN General Assembly on 19th December, 1994 adopted a resolution 49/114 which proclaims 16th September as the International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer, to commemorate the signing of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer which was signed on 16th September, 1987.
Implementation of phase-out of ODSs
- India successfully phased out CFC (except in MDI), CTC and Halons by 2010.
- India has successfully implemented the National Strategy for transition to non-CFC Metered Dose Inhalers (MDIs) and plan for
phase-out of CFCs in the manufacture of pharmaceutical MDIs. The phase-out was achieved 11 months prior to the schedule approved by the Executive Committee (ExCom) of the Multilateral Fund (MLF) for implementation of the Montreal Protocol.
Implementation of HCFC Phase-out Management Plan (HPMP)
HPMP Phase I
- The phase-out of HCFCs was accelerated by 10 years with reduction schedule vide decision XIX/6 of the 19th MOP in 2007.
- A Roadmap for phasing-out of HCFCs was launched in October 2009 which provides the long term vision and action plan including the policy instruments for phasing out of production and consumption of HCFCs in India.
- The HPMP Stage-I was approved bythe ExCom of the MLF in its 66th Meeting held in April, 2012 to reduce 341.77 ODP tonne of HCFC from the starting point of 1691.25 ODP tonne with a total funding of US $ 23,011,537 including implementing agency support costs.
- The India’s HPMP Stage-I addressed the conversion of foam manufacturing facilities from HCFCs to non-ODS technologies and provided technical assistance to the Systems Houses for developing HCFC free pre-blended polyol system. Refrigeration and Air-conditioning (RAC) servicing sector was also addressed in HPMP I and enabling activities for policy development and awareness generation were carried out.
- The HPMP Staged is being implemented in close cooperation with United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),the lead implementing agency, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ).
- India has successfully achieved the freeze as on 1.1.2013 and 10% reduction of production and consumption of HCFCs as on 1.1.2015, in line with the accelerated phase-out schedule of the Montreal
- The HPMP Stage-II proposal was submitted by UNDID on behalf of India for the consideration of the 77th Meeting of the Ex-Com of the MLF held from 28th November to 2nd December, 2016.
- The 77th Meeting of the Ex-Com of the MLF held from 28th November to 2nd December, 2016 approved a total funding of US $48,315,261 for reduction of 769.49 ODP tonnes of HCFCs under HPMP Stage II.
Launch of HPMP Stage II
- The then Hon’ble Minister of State (Independent Charge), Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Government of India, launched the implementation of HPMP stage II on 6th March 2017, in a stakeholder meeting where officers of the Ministries and Organizations of the Central Government, State Governments, representatives from industries, stakeholders including NGOs and implementing agencies associated with the implementation of the HPMP II viz. UNDP, GIZ and UNEP, were present.
- More than 400 enterprises, including 300+ Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) in the foam manufacturing sector and 6 large air-conditioning manufacturing enterprises will be supported under HPMPII for conversion from HCFCs to non-HCFC technologies.
- The HPMP II also provides for promotion of energy efficiency, development building codes integrating HCFC phase out issues, cold chain development with non-HCFC alternatives and development of standards for new non-ODS and low GWP alternatives, while transitioning away from HCFCs. It is expected that there would be a net direct CO2-equivalent emission reductions of about 8.5 million metric tonne annually from 2023.
- HPMP Stage-II also specifically focusses on the MSME sector in foam manufacturing. Adequate attention has also been given to synergize the Refrigeration and Servicing (RAC) servicing sector trainings under HPMP II, with the Skill India Mission, in order to multiply the impact of skilling and According to estimates, nearly 16, 000 service technicians will be trained under HPMP-II.
- The Stakeholders’ meeting discussed the implementation of HPMP Stage II, the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol for phase down of Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and the post-Kigali developments.
Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol for phase-down of HFCs
- The 28th Meeting of Parties to the Protocol held in Kigali adopted an amendment to the Protocol which is historic and aimed at phasing down the HFCs that contribute to global warming.
- HFCs do not deplete the Ozone layer, however, they have high global warming
- The negotiations for phasing down of HFCs underthe Montreal Protocol were initiated way back in 2009, but these negotiations gathered momentum only after India submitted an amendment proposal for phase down of HFCs under the Montreal Protocol in April, 2015.
- India represents only around 2 % of the global production and consumption of HFCs but our manufacturing and consumption sector is expected to grow in
- India has been a strong advocate of the principle of Common but Differentiated Responsibility and relevance of national circumstances in the matter of global actions to protect environment.
- In the Kigali Amendment, it has been agreed that the developing countries will have two set of baselines – one for the early movers in which case it will be 20202021-2022 and the other for those whose national circumstances were different and the manufacturing of HFCs and consumption in whose case was still rising in the absence of clear alternative technologies. In case of such countries the agreed baseline years are 2024, 2025 and 2026.
- The developed countries will have baseline years of 2011-2013 with separate reduction schedule starting 10% in 2019, 40% in 2024, 70% in 2029, 80% in 2034 and 85% in 2036. For Belarus, Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan initial two steps will be different as 5% reduction in 2020 and 35% reduction in 2025.
- India piloted a realistic baseline of 20242026 for production and consumption of HFCs in developing countries for phase-down of HFCs. As per the agreement reached in Kigali, India will freeze its manufacturing and consumption of HFCs in 2028 with reference to the baseline years 2024, 2025 and 2026. The Freeze year is subject to technology review and could be further deferred to 2030. India will complete its phase down in 4 steps from 2032 onwards with cumulative reduction of 10% in 2032, 20% In 2037, 30% in 2042 and 85% in 2047.
- This agreement facilitates adequate carbon Space for growth on domestic industry while minimizing the cost to the economy during the transition period The agreed baseline years, freeze year and reduction schedule as Kigali Amendment of the Montreal Protocol for phase-down of HFCs.
|A5 Group 1 (Developing)||A5 Group 2 (Developing)||A2 (Developed)_|
|Formula||Average HFC consumption||Average HFC consumption||Average HFC
|HCFC||65% baseline||65% baseline||15% baseline*|
|2nd step||2035 — 30%||2037 — 20%||2024 — 40%|
|3rd step||2040 — 50%||2042 — 30%||2029 — 70%|
|4th step||2034 — 80%|
|Plateau||2045-80%||2047 — 85%||2036 — 85%|
- For Belarus, Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan 25% HCFC component of baseline and different initial two steps (1) 5% reduction in 2020 and (2) 35% reduction in 2025
- Group 1: Article 5 parties not part of Group
- Group 2: GCC, India, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan
- Technology review in 2022 and every 5 years
- Technology review 4-5 years before 2028 to consider the compliance deferral of 2 years from the freeze of 2028 of Article5Group2 to address growth in relevant sectors above certain threshold.
- On India’s initiative, it was agreed in Kigali that the Multilateral Fund under the Montreal Protocol will provide funds for maintaining or increasing the energy efficiency with new technology. Funding for
R&D and servicing sector in developing countries has also been included in the agreed solutions on finance.
- India has been able to secure an agreement that provides adequate space for growth of our economy, while providing adequate time for industry to shift to sustainable alternatives in the interest of environment. The agreed arrangements will minimize the cost to consumers in transitioning away from HFCs and provide for domestic innovation to develop in the sector of new generation refrigerants and related
- As there is a national focus on research, innovation and technology development
reflected in Make in India Programme of the Government, and to have least cost to economy while transitioning away from HFCs, and maintain the position of exporter of refrigerants, the Ministry had decided to launch a collaborative research programme in development of low GWP non ODS cost effective alternative technologies to HFCs indigenously involving research and academia institutions, industry and civil society organization.
Kigali Amendment Energy Efficiency
- India introduced a Conference Room Paper (CRP) with other proponents in the 39th Open Ended Working Group (OEWG) held from 11th to 14th July, 2017 on the issues related to financial and technical support for energy efficiency in Article-5 Parties.
- The CRP was considered and deliberated in the 29th Meeting of Parties to the Montreal Protocol (MOP) held from 20th to 24th November, 2017. India was able to pilot after sustained and intensive negotiations the adoption of the CRP on the issues related to financial and technical support for energy efficiency in Article-5 Parties submitted by India and other proponents. It is a significant first step in dovetailing energy efficiency and
refrigerant transition under the Montreal Protocol.
- The decision is a significant first step towards maintaining and/or enhancing energy efficiency of Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning (RAC) equipment with refrigerant transition under HFC phase down, which will enhance the overall climate benefit. The decision is embodied in Decision XXIX/10 of the MOP.
- Secretary, EF&CC made the statement during the high level segment of 29th MOP on behalf of India. Secretary, MoEFCC also participated in Ministerial Round-table in the High Level Segment of MOP on “Identifying future opportunities and priorities” wherein he underlined the past successes of the Montreal Protocol highlighting the key points which led to its success globally and in India which were wide and comprehensive stakeholder participation and technical and financial assistance mechanism under the He also set forth the future opportunities and priorities under the protocol including for effective implementation of the Kigali Amendment. Many of the ideas stated by Secretary EFCC were echoed by Mr. Erik Solheim, Executive Director, UN Environment.
- Awareness activities at the national and state levels were organized to sensitize the stakeholders to phase-out the ODSs in various sectors.
30th anniversary of the Montreal Protocol and 23rd World Ozone Day
- The International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer is being organized every year in the country on 16th September, at national and state levels since 1995.
- Booklet on “Montreal Protocol : India’s Success Story”, posters, stickers are published every year on the occasion of International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer giving latest information
on ODS phase-out in the country and technologies adopted for phasing-out of ODSs.
- The 23rd World Ozone Day was organized on 16th September, 2017 at New Delhi
- with the theme: ” Caring for all life under the Sun”. A large number of stakeholders and school children participated in the
- A pan-India awareness campaign launched by the Environment Ministry on the This campaign was among the most widespread countrywide engagements of the Ministry for awareness generation, carried out with the active partnership of States through schools and academic/research institutions spread across the country. The awareness campaign saw participation of
students from more than 13, 000 schools and reached out to 214 districts across 16 states of the country.
- The awareness campaign was implemented with active collaboration from State Governments, Regional Offices of the Ministry, Subordinate organizations and Autonomous bodies of the Ministry, State Nodal Agencies under the National
Green Corp Scheme of the Ministry, and the ENVIS centers spread across the country. A special website was created for wider participation and engagement of stakeholders http://ozone30mp.nic.in.
- Ten information posters for school students were developed on Montreal Protocol. These were disseminated across the
- The following publications were launched
bythe Hon’ble Ministeron the occasion:
Handbook on HCFC Phase-out and Energy Efficiency in Buildings; and
– The first edition of ‘newsTRAC; and a newsletter for service technicians in Refrigeration and Air-conditioning (RAC) sector.
- These two publications were launched as part of the enabling component of India’s HCFC Phase out Management Plan, for which United Nations Environment is the cooperating agency and Energy Efficiency Services Ltd. (EESL) and The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) are the national implementing partners.
- The following two videos were launched:
India’s achievements in implementation of Montreal Protocol, and
HCFCs phase-out and Energy Efficiency in buildings.
- On this occasion, the publication “Montreal Protocol: India’s Success Story”
was released by the Chief Guest and distributed to the participants. In addition, poster design, painting, slogan writing competitions were organized among school children. Prizes for the winning entries in each category of the competitions were awarded by the Chief Guest.
- Piquor–on line selfie stand and infographic relating to past achievements of Montreal Protocol were arranged for wider public engagement.
- India has met the following compliance targets with respect to phaseout of ODSs either on or ahead of the control schedule of the Montreal Protocol:-
- The Ex-Com of the MLF so far has approved a total of 305 projects involving MLF funding of US $ 327,657,464 to the Indian industry for phase-out of production and consumption of 59,749.49 ODID tonne of the ODSs in India.
- Complete phase-out of production and consumption of CFCs, CTC and halons with effect from 1.1. 2010.
- Successful implementation of the National Strategy for transition to non-CFC MDIs and plan for phase-out of CFCs in the manufacture of MDls in India.
- The production and consumption of Methyl Chloroform has been phased out globally as on 1.1.2015, with possible essential use exemptions.
- The production and consumption of Methyl Bromide has been phased out globally as on 1.1.2015, except use in quarantine and pre-shipment applications
- India has successfully met the freeze as on 1.2013 and 10% reduction of production and consumption of HCFCs as on 1.1.2015 in line with the accelerated phase out schedule of the Montreal Protocol.
- India has been elected as a Member of the Ex-Com of the MLF for the implementation of the Montreal Protocol for the year 2018.
- The 77th Meeting of the Ex-Com of the MLF approved HPMP Stage-II with a total funding of US $48,315,261 for reduction of 49 ODP tonnes of HCFCs from the remaining HCFC consumption eligible for funding.
- The Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
reached agreement at the 28th Meeting of the Parties on 15 October 2016 in Kigali, Rwanda to phase-down HFCs.
- The MoEFCC, Government of India hosted the South Asia Ozone Officers Annual Network meeting at Agra, India from 23-26 May, 2017 in collaboration with the UN The meeting was attended by National Ozone Officers of South Asian Region. Ms. Tina Birmpili, Executive Secretary, Ozone Secretariat, Mr. Eduardo Ganem, Chief Officer, Multilateral Fund for Implementation of the Montreal Protocol, Ms. Dechen Tsering, Regional Director, South Asia, Un Environment, Ms. Shamila Nair Beduolle, Head Ozon Action Branch, UN Environment along with many international experts participated in the event. The then Secretary (EFCC) inaugurated the event.
- An “Ozone2Climate Technology Roadshow” was also organized for the first time as part of the annual network meeting to showcase technologies which are based on non- ODS with low GWP. The Roadshow was organized in association with RAMA, IPUA, EESL, GIZ and UNDP. The Roadshow had 13 exhibitors, who showcased current refrigeration and air conditioning equipment, designed to be more energy efficient that promoted ozone and climate-friendly alternative technologies to HCFCs and HFCs in the RAC sector. This was the first time the Ozone2Climate Technology Roadshow was organized as a part of the annual network meeting.
- India has taken a lead and issued an order for incinerating the HFC-23, a by-product of HCFC22 refrigerant production, voluntarily by the producers of HCFC – 22. HFC-23 gas, a potent greenhouse gas, with GWP of 14800, is produced as a by-product of HCFC-22 manufacturing, and if vented out in environment, is a threat to the India announced this step voluntarily without a commitment of financial support from the MLF, which shows the determination and commitment of the country on climate issues.
- Recognizing the cross cutting use of refrigeration and air conditioning technologies in various sectors and close linkage of energy efficiency with refrigerant transitions while phasing down HFCs, it has been decided to develop a National Cooling Action Plan. This plan
would inter-alia integrate the phase out of ODSs/phase down of HFCs while maximizing energy efficiency of air-conditioning equipment’s. National Cooling Action Plan will lend a long term perspective to different sectors using refrigerants, foaming agents and cooling technologies etc.
India piloted Decision XXIX/10 in the 29th Meeting of Parties on Issues related to energy efficiency while phasing down hydrofluorocarbons Vide the Decision of the MOP the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel of the Montreal Protocol shall submit a focused report inter alia on technology and capacity building requirements, Related costs including capital and operating costs in relation to maintaining and/or enhancing energy efficiency in the refrigeration, air-conditioning and heat-pump sectors, including in high-ambient-temperature conditions, while phasing down hydrofluorocarbons under the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol. This is an important step for moving towards integration of Energy efficiency issues under Montreal Protocol.
- India was one of the active member of the contact group on the replenishment of funds of the Multilateral Fund for period 2018 to 2020 during the 29th MOP and played a key role in the discussion on the The Parties agreed for replenishment of US $540 million to the MLF for the triennium 2018-2020. It may
be mentioned here in the prevailing international regime a replenishment of 540 million USD for the 2018 to 2020 of the MLF is a very significant achievement. The decision to this effect was adopted by the high-level segment of the 29th MOP.
Awards & Appreciations received so far
- The Ozone Cell of India has been conferred with several awards/appreciations/ recognitions for successful implementation of the Montreal Protocol and its ODS phase out activities.
- On the 30th anniversary of the Montreal protocol, the Ozone Secretariat in cooperation with Government of Canada, hosted the Award distribution ceremony on 23rd November 2017.The Award were
handed over by Ms Catherine Mckenna, Minister of Environment, Government of Canada, at the glittering Award Ceremony.
- The awards recognised the achievements of individuals, groups and organizations that have demonstrated extraordinary contribution to the progress of protocol in last 10 years.
- Late Shri Anil Madhav Dave, the then Hon’ble Minister of State (independent charge) environment, forest and climate change, Government of India was given the Ozone Award under the Political Leadership category for the Leadership provided by India during the Kigali Amendment Negotiations.