Rising issue of air pollution has increasingly been becoming a serious concern, particularly in metro cities. A large number of cities and towns do not meet the standards for pollutants specifically for particulate matter. In a few cities including Delhi, the ambient particulate matter concentrations are much above the standards i.e. three to four times or even higher. Air quality regulation and actions for abatement of air pollution is undertaken under various provisions of Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 and Environment (Protection) Act, 1985 which prescribes the mechanism and authorities for handling the issue. The major impact is highlighted with reference to health of people. As per the available data for Delhi and NCR for last five years, Particulate Matter (PM10 and PM2.5) concentrations are the major concern for the entire area, however a few violations are observed in NO2 concentrations in Delhi, Meerut and Faridabad. The concentration of SO2 is within the standard limit at all the locations in all the last five years. PM10 are inhalable coarse particles, which are particles with a diameter between 2.5 and 1O micrometers (um) and PM2.5 are fine particles with a diameter of 2.5 um or less.
Air Pollution and Health
I. Generally, for young and healthy people, moderate air pollution levels are unlikely to have any serious short term effects. However elevated levels and/or long term exposure to air pollution can lead to symptoms and conditions affecting human health. This mainly affects the respiratory and inflammatory systems, but can also lead to more serious conditions such as heart disease. People with lung or heart conditions may be more susceptible to the effects of air pollution.
II. With several international reports about impact of air pollution on health correlating with diseases and death in India, the issue has assumed greater prominence.
III. Global Burden of Disease’ estimates for 2017 that early deaths related to PM2.5 in India are the second highest in the world and ozone related deaths, are the highest in the world. The assumptions on which the model is based are not clear. These numbers are not validated for Indian conditions and there are no conclusive data available to establish direct correlation of death exclusively with air pollution. Health effects of air pollution are cumulative manifestation of factors which include food habits, occupational habits, occupational habits, socio¬economic status, medical history, immunity, heredity etc. of the individuals. Air pollution is one of the triggering factors for respiratory associated ailments and diseases and it is acknowledged that higher the level of air pollution higher is the risk to lungs in a given area. Further in Delhi ozone levels are within the permissible levels; therefore, the estimate of higher number of ozone deaths referred is not clear.
IV. With focus on environmental health issues, MoEF&CC has constituted a high level Apex Committee and a Working Group under the joint chairmanship of ICMR and the Ministry to identify thrust areas in environment health and to evaluate the related projects. In line with recommendation of Working Group, our Ministry in coordination with M/o Health and ICMR has already initiated action towards study on National Environmental Health Profile, with emphasis on impact of air pollution on health.
V. ICMR has initiated a project titled “Effect of Air Pollution on Acute Respiratory Symptom in Delhi: A Multicity Study” with effect from June 2017 at 5 centres viz AIIMS-Pulmonary Medicine Department, AIIMS-Paediatric Department, Vallabhai Patel Chest Institute, Kalawati Saran Children’s Hospital and National Institute of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases for a period of 1 year.
VI. ICMR- National Institute for Research in Environmental Health (NIREH), Bhopal has recently initiated a three year duration study entitled “Aberrant circulating epigenomic signatures: Development and validation of minimal-invasive biomarkers for trans-generational monitoring of air pollution associated cancers” in collaboration with IIT, Kharagpur to develop novel biomarkers bearing epigenetic signatures, for lung cancer.
Sources for Air pollution in Delhi NCR: Various studies conducted to identify the reasons for rise in pollution in country including NCR of Delhi specially during winter months. A study as ‘Comprehensive Study on Air Pollution and Green House Gases in Delhi, 2016’ was conducted by Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur to identify major air pollution sources in NCT of Delhi, their contributions to ambient air pollution levels and develop an air pollution control plan. The study confirms that Particulate Matter is the main source of pollution and levels of PM10 and PM2.5 are 4-7 times higher than National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in summer and winter months. Based on the air quality measurements in summer and winter months, it is inferred that the contribution of PM10 and PM2.5 from different sources is different in summer and winter. Sources of pollution during winter include secondary particles (25 -30%), vehicles (20 – 25%), biomass burning (17 – 26%), municipal solid waste burning (9 – 8%) and to a lesser extent soil and road dust. Sources of pollution during summer include, coal and fly ash (37 – 26%), soil and road dust (26 – 27%), secondary particles (10 – 15%), biomass burning (7 – 12%), vehicles (6 – 9%) and municipal solid waste burning (8-7%).
Initiatives on Air Pollution Mitigation:
- National Ambient Air Quality Standards envisaging 12 pollutants have been notified under EPA, 1986 and 115 emission/effluent standards for 104 different sectors of industries, besides 32 general standards for ambient air have also been notified.
- Government is executing a nation-wide programme of ambient air quality monitoring known as National Air Quality Monitoring Programme (NAMP). The network consists of Six hundred and Ninety-One (691) manual operating stations covering Three Hundred and three (303) cities/towns in twenty-nine (29) states and four (6) Union Territories of the country. In addition, there are 86 real-time Continuous Ambient Air Quality Monitoring stations (CAAQMS) in 57 cities. Delhi has 10 Manual Stations and 18 CAAQMS. 20 additional CAAQMS are at various stages of installation in Delhi.
- With reference to Vehicular pollution the steps taken include introduction of cleaner / alternate fuels like gaseous fuel (CNG, LPG etc.), ethanol blending, universalization of BS-IV by 2017; leapfrogging from BS-IV to BS-VI fuel standards by 1st April, 2020; ongoing promotion of public transport network of metro, buses, e-rickshaws and promotion of carpooling, streamlining granting of Pollution Under Control Certificate, lane discipline, vehicle maintenance etc.
- National Air Quality index (AQI) was launched by the Prime Minister in April, 2015 starting with 14 cities and now extended to 34 cities.
- A Graded Response Action Plan for control of air pollution in Delhi and NCR region has been notified. This plan specifies actions required for controlling particulate matter (PM emissions from various sources and prevent PM10 and PM2.5 levels to go beyond ‘moderate’ national Air Quality Index (AQI) category. The measures are cumulative. Emergency and Severe levels include cumulatively all other measures listed in the lower levels of AQI including Very Poor, Poor and Moderate. Actions listed in the Poor to Moderate category need to be implemented though out the year.
- Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has issued a comprehensive set of directions under section 18 (1) (b) of Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1986 for implementation of 42 measures to mitigate air pollution in major cities including Delhi and NCR comprising of action points to counter air pollution in major cities which include control and mitigation measures related to vehicular emissions, re-suspension of road dust and other fugitive emissions, bio-mass/municipal solid waste burning, industrial pollution, construction and demolition activities, and other general steps.
- In order to involve people in the effort, Government had launched a campaign called ‘Harit Diwali and Swasth Diwali’ during September 2017 involving over 2000 schools in Delhi and over two lakh schools in the country. The Government had also organized a Mini Marathon for ‘Swachh Hawa for Swachh and Swasth Bharat’ on 15th October 2017 at India Gate in which nearly 15,000 school children had participated.
- Regular co-ordination meetings are held in the Ministry at official and ministerial level with Delhi and other State Governments to avoid the emergency situation. In this regard several meetings have been held this year under the chairmanship of Hon’ble Minister for Environment Forest and Climate Change and Secretary (EF&CC) involving Environment Minister of the States and Senior State Functionaries including Chief Ministers, Ministers, Chief Secretaries and Additional Chief Secretaries.
- CPCB had taken a number of Proactive steps to help improve ground implementation .40 CPCB teams deployed for ground feedback on air polluting activities in Delhi –September 01, 2017 onwards Field visit to four pollution hotspots (Anand Vihar, ITO, Punjabi Bagh and DTU) and suggested interventions July 2017 .On the spot reporting to DPCC, and weekly summary reports to Delhi Govt.
- During air pollution emergency period from 7.11.2017 to 14.11.2017 and measures like ban on construction, sprinkling of water, ban on entry of truck etc. which are there under GRAP were implemented.
- A High Level Task Force (HLTF) headed by Principal Secretary to PM has been constituted by the government for management of air pollution in Delhi and NCR. First meeting of Task Force was held on 4th December 2017. On the basis of direction of the Task Force, Sub-Committee of High Level Task Force for Prevention of Stubble Burning in Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Punjab has been constituted and report has been submitted for consideration by the HLTF. The Task Force has proposed a draft Air Action Plan on Abatement of Air Pollution in the Delhi National Capital Region in which time bound activities have been outlined. This has been put in the public domain for suggestions/comments from citizens and experts for possible refinements.
Outcome of Initiatives in Delhi: The air quality has improved since the episodic high pollution incidence of November 07- 14, 2017. Further, overall the improvement has been observed this year in terms of less numbers of ‘severe’, ‘very poor’ and poor days and more number of good, satisfactory and moderate AQI days in Delhi as compared to last year. It may be noted that the number of good, moderate and satisfactory AQI days in 2017 were 151 compared to 109 days in 2016. Similarly, the number of poor, very poor and severe AQI days have shown a drop in the current year as compared to last year: 181 in 2017 against 214 in 2016.
Noise Pollution: As a follow-up of Section 5.2.8 (IV) of National Environmental Policy (NEP)- 2006, ambient noise has been included as a regular parameter for monitoring in specified urban areas. Protocol for National Ambient Noise Monitoring Network Programme has been prepared and circulated to State Pollution Control Boards. Central Pollution Control Board in association with State Pollution Control Boards has established Real Time National Ambient Noise Monitoring Network in 07 metropolitan cities
and installed 70 no. of Noise Monitoring System in Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Lucknow and Hyderabad (Ten stations in each).
The average level of noise pollution in respect of seven metro cities of the country during last three years is provided in Table. The analysis of data indicates fluctuating trend in the noise levels. During day time, Lucknow recorded the maximum sound level followed by Kolkata, Delhi and Mumbai. Similarly, during night time maximum sound level observed at Chennai followed by Lucknow, Kolkata and Mumbai.The steps taken to reduce noise pollution inter alia include advisories for noise monitoring on the occasion of Diwali; prohibition of the use of fireworks between 10.00 p.m. and 06.00 a.m.; publicity regarding the ill effects of fire crackers, sensitization of students through course curriculum besides general awareness building of public at large to avoid bursting of fire-crackers; and issuance of directions under Section 5 of Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 and under section 18 (1) (b) of Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981. The noise emission standards related to equipment(s) are the Environment (Protection) Rules, 1986.
Scheme of Assistance for Abatement of Pollution: The scheme of Assistance for Abatement of Pollution was conceptualized in 1992 during the 7th Five-Year Plan with the objective inter alia to strengthen the CPCB and SPCBs/PCCs for enforcing statutory provisions for pollution abatement. The scheme is a part of a centrally sponsored umbrella scheme of ‘Pollution Abatement’. The scheme of assistance for pollution abatement comprise of sub-components are Grants-in-Aid-General; Grants for creation of Capital Assets; Environment Health Cell (EHC) & Trade and Environment (PL) including North Eastern Region Grants-in-Aid-General and North Eastern Region Grants for creation of Capital Assets. The scheme had an allocation of Rs 45 crore in the XI Five Year Plan and Rs. 60 Crore in the XII FYP. The Scheme provides 100 % grant to SPCBs/PCCs, Governmental organizations.
Under this Scheme the Grants are provided to the State Pollution Control Boards/UT Pollution Control Committees, Environment Departments of States/UTs, Central/State Research Institutes, and other government agencies/organizations with the aim of strengthening their technical capabilities to achieve the objectives of the Policy Statement. Assistance is also provided to North Eastern Pollution Control Boards & Pollution Control Committees as salary support for the technical staff. In addition, support is also extended for undertaking projects for Abatement of Pollution.
During this year (2017-18), an allocation of Rs.5.20 crore (including Rs. 1.00 Crore for NE Region) in the BE was made for providing financial assistance to the on-going/new projects. The assistance has been extended to two State Pollution Control Boards/ Pollution Control Committees and one institutes for Environmental Health in the current financial year. A Grant-in-Aid to was made to Centre for Science and Environment for conducting training programme for environmental regulators during this year.
Scheme of Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs)
- The concept of the Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs) arose in order to make a co-operative movement for pollution control. The main objective of the CETPs is to reduce the treatment cost to be borne by an individual member unit to a minimum while protecting the environment to a maximum. Wastewater treatment and water conservation are the prime objectives of the CETP. The concept of CETPs was envisaged to treat the effluent emanating from the clusters of compatible small – scale industries. It was also envisaged that burden of various Government authorities working for controlling pollution and monitoring of water pollution could be reduced once the CETPs are implemented and commissioned.
A Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) had been undertaken by the Government for enabling Small Scale Industries (SSI) to set up new and upgrade the existing Common Effluent Treatment Plants to cover all the States in the country. The CSS of CETPs had been revised by the Ministry since 2012 with the following salient features:
- The Central subsidy has been enhanced from 25%to 50%of the project cost.
- All the three levels of treatment, primary, secondary and tertiary are to be covered for assistance. Progressive technologies like Zero Liquid Discharge will also be considered for assistance, subject to a ceiling.
- The management of the CETP is to be entrusted to a Special Purpose Vehicle registered under an appropriate statute.
- Performance guarantee at full design load is to be ensured upfront.
- However, after the evaluation of the Plan Scheme of MoEF&CC in 2016-17, It was decided to discontinue CETP Scheme after funding support to the existing on-going projects.
- During this year (2017-18), an allocation of Rs.14.00 Crore in the BE was made for providing financial assistance to the ongoing CETP projects at Ludhiana Palsana & Pali.
Control of Pollution- Development of Environmental Standards: The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC) formulates and notifies standards for emission or discharge of environmental pollutants viz. Air pollutants, water pollutants and noise limits, from industries, operations or processes with an aim to protect and improve the quality of the environment and abate environmental pollution. The standards are framed in consultation with the concerned stakeholders. The process is based on the best practices and techno-economic viability. The notification of standards also involves formulation of load based standards i.e. emission/ discharge limits of pollutants per unit of product obtained/ processes performed to encourage resource utilization efficiency and conservation aspects.
The standards for any industrial process / operation recommended by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) are subjected to stakeholder consultation including general public. The comments are compiled and technically examined by CPCB and change, if any, incorporated. The modified standards are placed before the “Expert Committee (EC)’ of MoEF&CC for approval. The EC of MoEF&CC comprises of representatives from industry associations, subject experts, and concerned Ministries of the industrial sectors, besides the officials of MoEF&CC and CPCB. The EC recommended standards for approval and legal vetting are published in Gazette of India. During the year, Standards in respect of following category of Industries have been notified.
Sewage Treatment Plants (STPPs) Effluent discharge Standards Gazette Notification G.S.R. 1265(E) dated 13/10/2017: The issue has gained significant because of the stress of water bodies which are getting increasing polluted and may have severe repercussion in maintain the quality of environment in the country. There is not specific standard related to Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) currently and effluent standard are governed by general standard including marine discharge of environment pollutant, which do not lay down any norm with respect to fecal coliform. In the absent of such standard, the treated water may not meet the required norms with respect to drinking water or bathing. The Ministry has notified environment standard for STPs for effluent discharge standard (applicable to all mode of disposal) vide No.G.S.R. 1265(E) dated 13/10/2017. Before finalization of the aforesaid notification the Ministry has taken detail consultation with lined Ministries /Departments i.e. Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, National Mission for Clean Ganga, Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organisation (CPHEEO), Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and different stakeholders.
In the notified standard, the permitted pH range of treated effluent is 6.5 to 9.0. BioChemical Demand (BOD) is ’20’ and ’30’ and Total Suspended solids (TSS) is <50 and <100 in Metro cities all State Capitals except in the state of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Jammu and Kashmir, and Union territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Dadar and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, Lakshadweep and areas/regions other than these states respectively. Fecal coliform (FC) standard is milliliter). These Standards shall apply to all STPs to be commissioned on or after the 1st June, 2019 and the old/Existing STPs shall achieve these standards within a period of five years from the date of publication of this notification in the Official Gazette. In case of discharge of treated effluent into sea, it shall be through proper marine outfall and the existing shore discharge shall be converted to marine outfall, and in case where the marine outfall provides a minimum initial dilution of 150 times at the point of discharge and a minimum dilution of 1500 times at a point 100 meters away from discharge point, then the existing norms shall apply as specified in the general discharge standards. Reuse/Recycling of treated effluent shall be encouraged and in case where part of the treated effluent is reused and recycled involving possibility of human contact, standards as specified above shall apply. Central Pollution Control Board/State Pollution Control Boards/Pollution Control Committees may issue more stringent norms taking account to local condition under section 5 of the Environmental (Protection) Act, 1986.
Fertilizer Industry Environmental Standards Gazette Notification G.S.R. 1607 (E) dated 29/12/2017: The MoEF&CC has notified revised environmental standards for effluent and emissions for Fertilizer Industries vide No. G.S.R. 1607(E) dated 29/12/2017. Before finalization of the aforesaid notification the Ministry has taken detail consultation with lined Ministries /Departments i.e. Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers, Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and different stakeholders. The Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers has suggested more stringent norms in compared to proposed draft notification by MoEF&CC with respect to free ammonical nitrogen, Cyanide (CN), particulate matter and total Fluoride as Fluorine etc. In the notification effluent standards for Fertilizer Industry covers mainly for i) Straight Nitrogenous Fertilizer Plant/Ammonia (Urea Plant), Calcium Ammonium Nitrate and Ammonium Nitrate Fertilizers ii) Straight Phosphatic Fertilizer Plant. iii) Complex Fertilizer Plant and / or NP/NPK (N-Nitrogen, P-Phosphorus and KPotassium and for Emission standards for i) Straight Nitrogenous Le a) Ammonia Plant-Reformer and b) Urea Plant – Prilling Tower ii) Ammonium Nitrate/ Calcium Ammonium Nitrate/NPK plant, iii) Phosphatic Fertilizer Plants i.e. Phosphoric Acid Plants/ Rock grinding and Acidulation SSP Plants and iv) Nitric Acid Plant.
The Standards in respect of 18 other categories of industries such as Man Made Fibre Industry; Pulp and Paper Industry; Paint Industry; Brick Kiln Industry; Automobile Service Station, Bus Depot and Workshop; Fermentation Industry; Coffee Processing Industry; Iron and Steel Industry; Tannery Industry; Diesel Locomotive, Airport Noise Standards, Emission Standards for Boilers using industries for SO2 and NOx, Emission Standards for Lime Kiln Industry, Glass Industry, Ceramic Industry, Foundry Industry, Reheating Furnace for SO2 and NOx and Standards for Kerosene are under
Recognition of Environmental Laboratories under Environment (Protection) Act, 1986: The successful implementation of environmental protection programmes essentially requires identifying and quantifying the pollution sources and pollutants, conducting baseline survey, laying down standards and build-up monitoring systems. Environmental laboratory requires to be provided with all necessary instruments and equipment’s and also expertise and capability of its staff for monitoring all parameters including water, air, noise, hazardous waste, soil, sludge etc. to meet these requirements. Under the provisions of Section 12 of Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 ,the Central Government recognizes Environmental Laboratories to carry out the functions entrusted to an environmental laboratory and under Section 13 of E (P) Act, 1986 the Central Government appoints Government Analyst(s) for carrying-out analysis of samples under E(P)Act, 1986 The Ministry has been recognizing of Environmental Laboratories and Government Analyst(s) under E (P) Act, 1986 with the aim of increasing facilities for analysis of environmental samples. The Guidelines for establishment and recognition of the laboratories have been revised and procedures streamlined in 2008 with emphasis on quality assurance and quality control. These revised guidelines are available on the website of the Ministry (www.moef.nic.in). In order to recognize the laboratory, laboratory submitting their application to the Ministry for consideration. These applications for recognition of laboratory are considered by an Expert Committee. Six (06) Private and One (01) Govt. Laboratories have been recognised and Nineteen (19) private laboratories have been recommended for recognition under E (P) Act, 1986 during the year.
Environmental Health: Ministry has been implementing a programme on environmental health. An Apex Committee and Working Group have been re-constituted for screening /evaluation of project proposals on environmental health. Four (4) projects have been extended financial assistance to carry out studies of impact of pollution on human health.
Taj Protection Mission:
In pursuance of the Hon’ble Supreme Court’s Order, projects for environmental protection of World Heritage Site of Taj Mahal were initiated and funded by the Ministry. The Planning Commission approved Rs.600 crore on a 50:50 cost sharing basis with the State Government to implement various schemes in the Taj Trapezium Zone for environmental protection of the Taj Mahal. In the first phase during the IX Five Year Plan, 10 Projects were approved by the Government and implemented by the State Government of Uttar Pradesh.
- At present, only a token of Rs. One Lakh is available under the scheme.
- The U.P Govt. was requested to submit fresh proposals to seek provision of more funds during the XII FYP from the Planning Commission. However, till date no comprehensive proposal has been received from the Government of UP.
- The TTZ Authority has been extended up to 30.12.2018 to monitor progress of the implementation of various schemes for protection of the Taj Mahal and programmes for protection and improvement of the environment in the TTZ area.
Central Pollution Control Board: The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) performs functions as laid down under The Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, and The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.
The Central Pollution Control Board has been playing a vital role in abatement and control of pollution in the country by generating environmental quality data, providing scientific information, formulating national policies and programmes, training and promoting awareness.
Name of the Scheme/Programme: Coordinating activities of State Pollution Control Boards/Pollution Control Committees for prevention & control of pollution;
– Development of industry specific national minimal effluent and emission standards and industry specific environmental guidelines and documents Implementation of CREP Compliance of Standards for major polluting industrial sectors
– Action plans for improvement of environment in critically polluted areas/clusters and monitoring their implementation
- Action plans for monitoring air quality in polluted cities .
- National water quality monitoring and publishing annual water quality reports;
- National ambient air quality monitoring and publishing annual air quality reports;
- National Ambient Noise Monitoring and publishing annual noise monitoring report.
– Carrying out and sponsoring research activities relevant to environmental protection;
- Publishing material relevant to environment protection.
Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) is focusing on strengthening of ambient air quality monitoring network for assessment of air quality at national, regional and local level. NAMP stations operated through State pollution control Boards needs further strengthening to monitor all notified parameters for ambient air, besides emphasis is being given for establishment of Continuous Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Stations (CAAQM) in all major cities.
The manual water quality monitoring network is being expanded further, realizing the need for
establishment of a network of real time water quality monitoring stations on river Ganga to ensure that the water quality is maintained.
Efforts are being made for strengthening of the compliance mechanism, so that no untreated industrial effluent is discharged into the environment. Installation of online effluent and emission monitoring in polluting industry and data connectivity with SPCB/CPCB is a step towards self-monitoring and transparency.
Efforts are for improving the performance of existing sewage treatment plants (STPs) and adopting non-conventional technologies that are in synergy with the conventional methods for improving the water quality of river Ganga and its tributaries.
Initiatives are being taken for water conservation in Industries trough process modification and adoption of state of art technology. Zero liquid discharge concepts shall be applied wherever possible to conserve the water and protect the environment. Problem of Municipal Solid Waste and domestic sewage would be given utmost attention.
National Water Quality Monitoring Programme: Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) in association with State Pollution Control Boards and Pollution Control Committees (SPCBs & PCCs) has established a water quality monitoring network. The network presently comprises of 3000 stations in 29 states and 6 union Territories. 2101 locations are monitored on monthly basis whereas 893 locations on half yearly basis and 6 locations on yearly basis. Time series data of water quality was analyzed periodically and
identified the issue of indiscriminate sewage discharge in 302 polluted stretches of rivers. Polluted river stretches throughout the country have been identified and concerned SPCBs have been requested for taking measures for restoration of water quality through identification of sources of pollution and interventions through treatment of municipal as well as industrial effluents.
Interstate River Boundary Monitoring: Water Quality Monitoring of Rivers at the Interstate Borders is carried out at 86 locations on 42 rivers on quarterly basis though few river locations are monitored once in a year. A detailed report on “Status of Water Quality of Rivers at Interstate Borders” already published underseries IRBM/01/2015 and also posted on website of CPCB.
Real Time Water Quality Monitoring System (RTWQMS) On River Ganga and Yamuna:
44 Real Time Water Quality Monitoring Stations (RTWQMS) have been established on river Ganga to assess the water quality.02 RTWQMS have been installed on river Yamuna viz.Wazirabad and Okhla in Delhi to assess water quality of river Yamuna.
CPCB’s Activities on Ganga Rejuvenation:
Activities executed under NGRBA Project are summarized as follows:
- Compliance verification of Grossly Polluting Industries.
- Performance evaluation of Sewage Treatment Plants.
- Intensive water quality monitoring in polluted stretches
- Periodic pollution assessment of major drains falling into River Ganga.
- Groundwater monitoring in adjacent districts of River Ganga.
- Installation of Real Time Water Quality Monitoring Stations (RTWQMS).
Development of Standards for Treated Effluent of Sewage Treatment Plants: Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) carried out study on status of Municipal wastewater generation and treatment capacity in Metropolitan cities, Class I cities and Class II towns of India and published a document (CUPS/61/2005-06). CPCB reported during 2010-2011 that out of 38254 MLD of sewage generated by class I cities and class II towns, only 11787 MLD has been treated and thereby leaving huge gap between sewage generation and sewage treatment. CPCB, reassessed sewage generation and treatment capacity for Urban Population of India for the year 2015. The sewage generation estimated to be 62000 MLD approximately and sewage treatment capacity developed so far is only 23277 MLD from 816 STPs.
There are no specific standards for discharge of treated sewage into streams. So far, General Standards for Discharge of Environmental Pollutants into inland surface, public Sewers, land for irrigation, marine coastal areas under Schedule-VI of The Environment (Protection) Rules, 1986 have been used for design of STPs and assessment of performance of STPs. General Standards does not account for coliform standards.
State Pollution Control Boards and Pollution Control Committee are also using General Standards for Discharge of Environmental Pollutants for granting consent to Sewage Treatment Plants and there are no specific standards for effluent of sewage treatment plants.
Standards for effluent of Sewage Treatment Plants are framed with respect to physiochemical and bacteriological parameters and notified vide Notification dated 13th October 2017,
National Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Programme: CPCB is executing a nation-wide National Air Quality Monitoring Programme (NAMP). The ambient air quality monitoring network has 691 operating stations covering 303 cities/towns in 29 States and 6 Union Territories.
Growth of Continuous Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Station (CAAQMS) & Air Quality index: CPCB, SPCBs and PCCs are monitoring ambient air quality of different cities and publish real-time data in public domain for taking corrective measures in time. Presently about 90 Continuous Ambient Air Quality Monitoring stations (CAAQMS) are operating in the country.In the beginning of the year, CPCB network had data connected from 58 stations in 35 cities spread over 13 States. National Air Quality Index, which combines the effect of all air quality parameters and generates a singl number has been developed by CPCB. The National AQl communicates air quality in terms of one number and one color for general public. Air Quality Index (AQl), inaugurated by the Hon’ble Prime Minister of India, is being continuously published on a web portal of CPCB, updated on hourly basis. The AQI software fetches the ambient air qualitv data from the CAAQM stadons and publishes the values of AQI for each parameter at each station without human interference. This application has become very popular and has created awareness in the field of environment. Media has also started reporting the air quality in the country on day-to-day basis, especially in Delhi city. At present, this network has been expanded to include 90 stations located in 53 cities of 16 States.
AQI Bulletin containing the data for each city is published every day at 4:00 pm for further easy understanding of the citizens. The entire process of generating AQI values, publishing every hour, preparation of bulletin and uploading it on CPCB website are automated.
Mobile APP ‘SAMEER’ for AQI display and Public Complaints: An APP ‘SAMEER’ is developed and available for Android and iOS devices, to display of AQI at city and station level, AQI Bulletin. A Public Forum is available at the APP, which helps the public in submitting suggestions or complaints related to air pollution issues along with photos in support of complaint. It also facilitates public to lodge their complaints regarding Air Pollution which automatically collects the locations and forward it to the respective agency foR redressal.
Air Quality Monitoring Network in Delhi and NCR: Delhi is currently having 10 manual monitoring stations and 38 CAAQMS (6 CPCB, 8 IMD and 24 DPCC). The existing monitoring network in other states under NCR has 30 monitoring stations. There are 21 manual stations (2 Haryana, 10 Uttar Pradesh and 9 Rajasthan) and 9 CAAQM (4 Haryana, 3 Uttar Pradesh and 2 Rajasthan).
In the monitoring network expansion plan in NCR submitted to the Hon’ble Supreme Court 21 more CAAQM stations was proposed; whereas 28 (22 in Haryana and 6 in Uttar Pradesh) more manual monitoring stations are to be added soon. On completion of proposed network on ambient air quality monitoring in the region, a total of 117 monitoring stations in Delhi – NCR would be in place: 68 CAAQMS for online line real time data disseminations and 49 manual stations for trend analyses (total 117).
Special air quality monitoring during Deepawali 2016 and 2107: With a view to study the impact of Deepawali festival CPCB conducted monitoring at selected location. Fireworks always add particulates and other criteria pollutants like SO2 and NO2 to air. As the ingredients in firecrackers have different elements and metals, these are instantaneously added to ambient air in the form of particulate (particularly in PM2.5) during Deepawali festivals. CPCB has performed detail analysis of metals elements in PM2.5.
With the reduction of fire cracking activities due to Hon’ble Court’s direction for banning on sale, this year Deepawali was marked with less dust pollution. PM2.5 was reduced by 39% compared to 2016 Deepawali day. The reduction of PM2.5 was related to less fire cracking activities is further justified as the major signature elements were also found considerably reduced this year. Sulphur got reduced by 20%, Potassium by 30%, Ca, Cu, Zn, Sb by about 35-40%, Fe and Ba by 50% and Al andC12by10%.
Pollution in Delhi during 2016 and 2017: It was observed in Delhi, the transitional phase towards winter is always critical due to lower mixing height, higher humidity on dry season, fall of ambient air temperature coupled with lower temperature difference between maximum and minimum, calm to low wind speed etc. The continuity of episode days in 2017 was more or less same as compared to 2016, however the meteorological conditions were much more critical in 2017, as compared to 2016. This maybe seen the following table:
Comparison of Air Pollution Episode days in Delhi
|Parameters||2016 (October 30 –
|2017 (November 7-
|Mixing height (m)||146-618||336-479|
|Wind speed (m/s)||1.0-3.0||1.0-1.3|
|Relative Humidity (%)||47.8-63.3||60.2-75.8|
National Ambient Noise Monitoring Network: CPCB in association with State Pollution Control Boards has laid down National Ambient Noise Monitoring Network covering 07 metropolitan cities i.e. in Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Lucknow and Hyderabad and installed 70 Noise Monitoring System (10 stations in each city).
Real-Time Emission & Effluent Monitoring Systems: With the advancements made in technology of pollution monitoring, automation in instrumentation/ equipment, CPCB has planned to bring data in CPCB server through online measurements from industrial units for emissions and effluents discharged into the environment. This activity is started with highly polluting industries in 17 Categories of Industries and Grossly Polluting Industries located on the banks of River Ganga.
Presently 2266 industries under 17 Categories of industries and 744 GPI Industries have installed Emission Monitoring Systems and Effluent Monitoring Systems and data is being transmitted continuously to CPCB and various SPCBs. The online data is being scrutinized and alerts are generated for respective industrial Unit Heads, officials looking after the specific sector/ category of industries at CPCB and SPCBs/PCCs. These alerts act as useful and timely information to act immediately to stop the identified pollution source within shortest possible time.
E-Track for Industries:
India E-Track Industries is an online portal and MIS System for GPI and 17 categories industries. In this portal there is provision to enter GPI and 17 categories industries data/information in numbers. There is also provision for update compliance and connectivity status of GPI and 17 categories Industries through MS Excel file.
Progress/Achievements of Various Activities:
Assessment of Pollution:
- Operation and maintenance of 691 manual Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Stations (AAQMS) covering 303 cities/towns in 29 States and 6 Union Territories.
- CPCB has developed a network of real time data from CAAQM stations being operated by CPCB, SPCBs and PCCs. This data is provided to all stake holders and being published in public domain for taking corrective measures in time. In the beginning of the year 2015, CPCB network has data connected from 27 stations in 10 cities spread in 06 states, has been expanded to total 40 stations located in 22 cities of 11 states.
- Operation of 3000 Water Quality Monitoring Stations (WQMS) at various aquatic resources. Time series data of water quality was analysed and identified the issue of sewage disposal in 302 river polluted stretches.
- 70 National Ambient Noise Monitoring Network (NANMN) stations have been installed spreading over 10 cities and data is being disseminated.
Industrial Pollution Control:
Development of Environmental Standards: The Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change (MoEF&CC) formulates and notifies standards for emission for discharge of environmental pollutants viz. Air pollutants, water pollutants and noise limits, from industries, operations or processes with an aim to protect and improve the quality of the environment and abate environmental pollution. The standards are framed in consultation with all concerned stakeholders for the benefit of environment. The process is based on the best practices and techno economic viability. The notification of standards also involves formulation of load based standards i.e., emission/discharge limits of pollutants per unit of product obtained/ processes performed to encourage resource utilization efficiency and conservation aspects.
MoEF&CC has notified regulation on Lead Contents in House hold & Decorative Paints. The limit for lead has been fixed 90 ppm. As per Rule 7 of this notification, CPCB has developed the compliance and testing procedure in association with Central Power Research Institute (CPRI) and placed at CPCB website.