Introduction

MoEFCC > Introduction

In the Wildlife Division of the Ministry, the Additional Director General of Forests (WL) and Director, Wildlife Preservation is the head of the Wildlife Wing. The Wildlife Wing has two Divisions, namely, Project Elephant Division and Wildlife Division, each headed by an officer in the rank of Inspector General of Forests. A Deputy Inspector General of Forest (Wildlife) and an Assistant Inspector General and Joint Director (Wildlife) provide administrative and technical support to the Wildlife Wing. In addition, there are three autonomous bodies, Wildlife Institute of India (WII) for wildlife research & training, Central Zoo Authority (CZA) for conservation and zoo management and National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA). The NTCA has been constituted by converting the Project Tiger Directorate into an autonomous body for tiger conservation. The National Zoological Park in the capital is also a part of the Wildlife wing of the Ministry of Environment Forests.

To combat wildlife related crimes, a Wildlife Crime Control Bureau under the Director, Wildlife Preservation has been constituted with 5 Regional Offices viz, Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and Jabalpur and 3 Sub-regional offices at Amritsar, Guwahati, and Kochi. And 5 Border Units located at Moreh, Nathula, Motihari, Gorakhpur and  Ramanathapuram.

Wildlife Division deals with the policy and law matters and knowledge management for facilitating processes and analysis for evolution of policy and law for conservation of biodiversity and Protected Area network.

Wildlife Division of the Ministry provides technical and financial support to the State/ UT Governments for wildlife conservation under the Centrally Sponsored Scheme – Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats and also through Central Sector Scheme – Strengthening of Wildlife Division and Consultancies for Special Tasks, and through Grants in Aid to the Central Zoo Authority and Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun. The objectives and details of the Schemes are as given below:

CSS – Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats:

At present India has a network of 700 Protected Areas (103 National Parks, 528 Wildlife Sanctuaries, 65 Conservation Reserves and 4 Community Reserves).  The details of the Protected Areas in India may be seen at:

http://www.wiienvis.nic.in/Database/Protected_Area_854.aspx

The Government of India provides financial and technical assistance to the State/UT Governments for activities aimed at wildlife conservation through the Centrally Sponsored Scheme viz. ‘Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats’. The scheme has following three components:

i. Support to Protected Areas (National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Conservation Reserves and Community Reserves)

ii.  Protection of Wildlife Outside Protected Areas

iii. Recovery programmes for saving critically endangered species and habitats.

i.Support to Protected Areas:

Eligible PAs: National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Conservation Reserves and Community Reserves, other than those availing central assistance  under the CSS- Project Tiger, which are duly notified under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 and are under the control of the Chief Wildlife Wardens.

Pattern of funding:

100{b9cca8aede1995d450ecbb7cabdd9c806c66ba8f7afe5985dcdbcb8cb5055004} central assistance is provided for non-recurring items and 50{b9cca8aede1995d450ecbb7cabdd9c806c66ba8f7afe5985dcdbcb8cb5055004} assistance for recurring items.

Areas falling in mountain regions, coastal zones, deserts, or those areas which support certain selected endangered species, are eligible for 100{b9cca8aede1995d450ecbb7cabdd9c806c66ba8f7afe5985dcdbcb8cb5055004} central assistance for both recurring and non-recurring items.

  1. Protection of Wildlife Outside Protected Areas:

There is substantial wildlife and natural resources lying outside the Protected Areas network of India. This component seeks to support the conservation of wildlife in these areas.

Eligible areas:

High value biodiversity areas outside PAs. Areas contiguous to PAs/corridors are given priority.

The Chief Wildlife Wardens prepare a Biodiversity Conservation Plan for such selected area; Human-wildlife conflict management in and around forests.

Pattern of funding: Same as in the case of PAs.

  1. Recovery programme for critically endangered species and habitats:

This component is for affecting the recovery of critically endangered species in the country. Initially 17 species have been identified under this component. These are Snow Leopard, Bustard (including Floricans), Dolphin, Hangul, Nilgiri Tahr, Marine Turtles, Dugongs, Edible Nest Swiftlet, Asian Wild Buffalo, Nicobar Megapode, Manipur Brow-antlered Deer, Vultures, Malabar Civet, Indian Rhinoceros, Asiatic Lion, Swamp Deer and Jerdon’s Courser.

The Director, Wildlife Preservation, Government of India, in consultation with the Wildlife Institute of India or the relevant scientific institute and with the approval of the Standing Committee of the NBWL can initiate other recovery programmes or wind up an ongoing programme.

Pattern of funding:

100{b9cca8aede1995d450ecbb7cabdd9c806c66ba8f7afe5985dcdbcb8cb5055004} assistance is provided for both non-recurring and recurring items.

Each recovery programme has to be based on a comprehensive and scientific ‘Recovery Plan’. The Chief Wildlife Wardens of the concerned States (if the species range is in more than one State), shall jointly prepare the Recovery Plan with the help of a national scientific institute/organization of repute.

Activities under CSS- ‘Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats’:

Activities covered under the Centrally Sponsored Scheme ‘Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats’ are as follows:

1. Management Planning and capacity building:

i.Strengthening wildlife research, education and nature awareness

ii.Staff development and capacity building

iii.Monitoring and evaluation

iv. Management Planning

2. Anti-poaching & infrastructure development:

i Anti-poaching activities

ii Strengthening of infrastructure

iii Strengthening Wildlife veterinary care

iv Strengthening Staff welfare activities

3. Restoration of habitats:

i Habitat improvement activities

ii  Safeguards / Retrofitting measures

4. Eco-development and community oriented activities:

i  Addressing man-animal conflict

ii Strengthening co-existence agenda

iii Deciding inviolate spaces and relocation of villages from crucial wildlife habitats

iv Fostering ecotourism

v .Assistance to activities in Trans-boundary Protected Areas

Financial releases made during the last five years- State/UT-wise under CSS- ‘Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats’

(Rs. in lakhs)

S.No State/UT 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15
1 A& N Islands 87.872 127.06  109.50 150.00 00
2 Andhra Pradesh 64.341 71.5 180.335 00 63.31
3 Arunachal Pradesh 213.197 168.11 162.376 220.439 00
4 Assam 186.63 234.17 146 138.88 149.11
5 Bihar 19.889 0 64.685 34.8715 85.249
6 Chandigarh 12.29 19.98 0 00 00
7 Chhattisgarh 281.966 241.783 449.566 408.74 482.087
8 Goa 32.879 21.458 148.12 00 00
9 Gujarat 1106.75 1126.59 517.926 537.84457 634.94
10 Haryana 15.114 28.7 52 00 14.71
11 Himachal Pradesh 253.8 242.11 318.967 475.849 430.345
12 Jammu & Kashmir 537.336 445.085 515.957 485.747 506.761
13 Jharkhand 63.64 64.2615 81.6195 97.7655 101.12
14 Karnataka 412.252 335.851 434.502 351.00 483.7769
15 Kerala 366.786 941.79 1210.08 505.782 818.491
16 Madhya Pradesh 635.366 506.164 467.707 454.354 371.354
17 Maharashtra 343.32 322.391 425.883 470.772 402.723
18 Manipur 88.316 86.65 73.925 80.80 129.192
19 Meghalaya 58.03 43.8 22.08 25.56 44.87
20 Mizoram 707.763 153.445 96.392 210.334 131.5413
21 Nagaland 33.595 30.333 25.855 15.375 85.155
22 Odisha 315.331 331.265 368.208 341.7448 350.3229
23 Punjab 25.12 00 00 00 00
24 Puducherry 00 00 00 00 12.00
25 Rajasthan 348.068 291.387 478.249 430.884 367.296
26 Sikkim 183.78 131.793 177.579 129.27836 169.15643
27 Tamil Nadu 334.449 256.027 258.479 277.7918 280.626
28 Tripura 2.84 00 00 00 00
29 Uttar Pradesh 296.179 204.371 319.09 323.531 224.899
30 Uttarakhand 134.9 201.144 220.27 326.282 141.116
31 West Bengal 276.385 246.425 164.135 184.3735 108.847
TOTAL 7438.18 6873.64 7489.4855 6677.999 6588.99853

Management Effectiveness Evaluation (MEE) of the CSS- Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats:

During 2005-06, the Wildlife Division had initiated the Management Effectiveness Evaluation (MEE) of the CSS- ‘Assistance for Development of National Parks and Sanctuaries. Accordingly, the Ministry had set up five Regional Expert Committees, for the independent evaluation of PAs. The Wildlife Institute of India  is  coordinating the process of Management Effectiveness Evaluation (MEE).  Since 2006 to 2014, 125 PAs have been evaluated. MEE score of these PAs are as below

Total No. of PAs Overall MEE Score ({b9cca8aede1995d450ecbb7cabdd9c806c66ba8f7afe5985dcdbcb8cb5055004}) Evaluation Category
 

 

125

 

 

61{b9cca8aede1995d450ecbb7cabdd9c806c66ba8f7afe5985dcdbcb8cb5055004} Very Good Good Fair Poor
18 (14{b9cca8aede1995d450ecbb7cabdd9c806c66ba8f7afe5985dcdbcb8cb5055004}) 42 (34{b9cca8aede1995d450ecbb7cabdd9c806c66ba8f7afe5985dcdbcb8cb5055004}) 62 (34{b9cca8aede1995d450ecbb7cabdd9c806c66ba8f7afe5985dcdbcb8cb5055004}) 3 (2{b9cca8aede1995d450ecbb7cabdd9c806c66ba8f7afe5985dcdbcb8cb5055004})

During the year, 2015-16, it is proposed to evaluate 40 more PAs. Proposal in this regard is under process.

 Species Recovery Programme:

Out of 17 species identified for the species recovery programme, financial assistance has been provided for nine species. The amount provided to the State/Union Territory in respect of these species is as below:

Name of Species Name of State Year Amount Released

(Rs. in lakh)

Hangul Jammu & Kashmir 2008-09 99.00
Jammu & Kashmir 2010-11 89.62
Jammu & Kashmir

 

2012-13 79.94
Total 268.56
Snow Leopard

 

Jammu & Kashmir

 

2008-09 126.00
Jammu & Kashmir 2010-11 43.20
Uttarakhand

 

2008-09 86.40
Arunachal Pradesh

(Funds released for preparation of Recovery Plan

2009-10 3.20
Himachal Pradesh 2010-11 24.16
Himachal Pradesh 2011-12 69.048
Himachal Pradesh 2012-13 71.488
Himachal Pradesh 2013-14 10.15
Himachal Pradesh 2014-15 53.555
Total 586.201
Vulture

 

Punjab 2008-09 16.00
Punjab 2010-11 2.40
Haryana 2008-09 38.00
Haryana 2011-12 5.60
Gujarat 2008-09 12.30
Total 74.30
Swiftlets

 

Andaman & Nicobar Islands 2009-10 30.99
Andaman & Nicobar Island 2010-11 24.672
Andaman & Nicobar Island 2011-12 19.20
Andaman & Nicobar Island 2012-13 17.54
Andaman & Nicobar Islands 13.79
Total 106.192
Nilgiri Tahr Tamil Nadu

(Funds released for preparation of Recovery  Plan)

2009-10 4.80
Total 4.80
Sanghai Deer

 

Manipur 2009-10 33.96
Manipur 2013-14 27.82
Manipur 2014-15  

79.152

Total 140.932
Lion

 

Gujarat 2010-11 674.541
Gujarat 2011-12 675.859
Total 1350.40
Dugong

 

Andaman & Nicobar Island 2013-14 18.61
Andaman & Nicobar Islands 2013-14 36.93
Total 55.54
Wild buffalo

 

Chhattisgarh 2012-13 13.75
Chhattisgarh 2013-14 95.17
Chhattisgarh 2014-15 101.12
Total 210.04
Jerdon’s Courser Andhra Pradesh 2014-15 63.31
Total 63.31

Financial assistance has also been provided to the States for relocation of families  from within PAs to areas outside. Details of such assistance provided are as follows:

S.No. Name of State/PA Year No. of Families Amount Released
1 Chhattisgarh (Barnawapara WLS) 2009-10 135 540.00
2 Kerala

(Wayanad Sanctuary)

2011-12 55 550.00

 

2012-13 98 784.00

 

2013-2014 75 446.00

 

3 Kerala

(Malabar WLS)

2011-12 3 30.00
4 Mizoram

(Thoranghtlang WLS)

2010-11 61 488.00

Human-animal conflict:

In India, human-animal conflict is seen across the country in a variety of forms, including monkey menace in the urban centers, crop raiding by ungulates and wild pigs, depredation by elephants, cattle lifting  and human death and injury by tigers, leopards and other wild animals. Human-animal conflict occurs both inside Protected Areas as well as outside Protected Areas. The intensity of the conflict is generally more in areas outside Protected Area network than inside.

Recently the incident of human-animal conflict has increased considerably. The increase is due to various reasons. Important among them are increase in wild animal population, fragmentation of habitats, non availability of food and water in the habitat due to degradation, disturbance in the corridors due to developmental activities, change in cropping pattern, increase in human populations etc. Various other reasons include adaptability of certain animals like leopard, monkey, nilgai, bear etc which allow them to live successfully close to human habitation.

The human-animal conflict is an important part of wildlife management as the co-operation of local population depends largely on winning their support by reducing loss to them by wild animals among many others.

In order to mitigate the human animal conflict, a national workshop on ‘Developing Strategies for Mitigation of Human wildlife conflict’ was held on 20.8.2013 at New Delhi wherein the matter was discussed and several mitigating measures were suggested. The Division is pursuing to have a separate component under the scheme for managing human-animals conflict.

3) CS – Strengthening of Wildlife Division and Consultancies for Special Tasks:

This Central Sector Scheme was launched in 1986 to strengthen the Wildlife Division in the Ministry and the Regional Offices of Wildlife Preservation for fulfilling the statutory obligations under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 and the inter-Governmental commitments  under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

International trade in wild flora and fauna including the species covered under CITES, is regulated by the provisions of the EXIM Policy. Relevant parts  of EXIM Policy are based on the legal provisions of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 and provisions of CITES. The Director (Wildlife Preservation) is designated as the CITES Management Authority and the Regional Deputy Directors (WCCB) are the Assistant Management  Authorities  for CITES implementation.  The function of these offices is to monitor and regulate international trade in wildlife and wildlife articles at the designated ports of exit and entry i.e Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai, Cochin, Amritsar and Guwahati.  In addition to the periodic reviews by the regional offices of Wildlife Preservation, an Annual Report is published as per the requirement of CITES.  Consequent upon creation of Wildlife Crime Control Bureau, these regional and sub-regional offices have been merged in the Bureau.

The scheme “Strengthening of Wildlife Division and Consultancies” (Control of Wildlife Crime) support the expenses of  the Wildlife Crime Control Bureau and its regional  offices located in Delhi, Jabalpur, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai to ensure adequate manpower and development of infrastructure for better enforcement of Wild Life (Protection) Act, etc. Assistance is also extended to the three sub regional offices at Guwahati, Amritsar and Cochin which were established subsequently to further strengthen the organization.

Besides, research proposals from independent research agencies and institutions on applied aspects of Wildlife Conservation in India are also provided support under this scheme.   During 2013-14, three ongoing projects were supported under the scheme.

Allocation and expenditure under CS- ‘Strengthening of Wildlife Division and Consultancies for Special Tasks/ Control of Wildlife Crime

(Rs in  crores)

Five year plan

 

Outlay Allotted Expenditure

 

X 10.00 15.00 11.28
XI 35.00 28.08 21.26
XII 70.00 25.62

(allocation during four financial years)

16.986

(upto March, 2015)

National Board for Wildlife

Due to the rapid decline in wildlife population, the Government of India during 1952 had constituted an advisory  body designated as the Indian Board for Wildlife (IBWL). The Indian Board for Wildlife  was chaired by the Prime Minister. Since its inception, twenty-one meetings have been convened and several important decisions relating to conservation of wildlife has been taken by the Board.

During the 1970’s the Government of India appointed a committee for recommending legislative measures and administrative machinery for ensuring environmental protection.  Accordingly, a comprehensive central legislation was enacted in 1972 called the Wildlife (Protection) Act for providing  special legal protection to our wildlife and to the endangered species of fauna in particular. The Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 has been amended, the latest being in 2006.  As per the amendment of the Act in 2002, a provision was incorporated for the constitution of the  National Board for Wildlife, replacing the Indian Board for Wildlife.

National Board for Wildlife (NBWL) is a statutory Board constituted on 22nd September 2003 under Section 5 of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972. The NBWL is chaired by the Hon’ble Prime Minister. The NBWL has 47 members including the Chairman. Amongst these, 19 members are ex-officio members. The  constitution of the National Board for Wildlife may be seen at following links:

http://www.moef.nic.in/sites/default/files/NATIONAL{b9cca8aede1995d450ecbb7cabdd9c806c66ba8f7afe5985dcdbcb8cb5055004}20BOARD{b9cca8aede1995d450ecbb7cabdd9c806c66ba8f7afe5985dcdbcb8cb5055004}20FOR{b9cca8aede1995d450ecbb7cabdd9c806c66ba8f7afe5985dcdbcb8cb5055004}20WILDLIFE-NOTIFICATION.pdf[PDF](75.8 KB)

http://www.moef.nic.in/sites/default/files/NBWL{b9cca8aede1995d450ecbb7cabdd9c806c66ba8f7afe5985dcdbcb8cb5055004}20GAZETTE{b9cca8aede1995d450ecbb7cabdd9c806c66ba8f7afe5985dcdbcb8cb5055004}20NOTIFICATION.pdf[PDF](77.91 KB)

2.       The Standing Committee of NBWL has been re-constituted vide notification no 6-46/2013- WL (pt-2) dated 22nd July 2014. Hon’ble MEF chairs the Standing Committee of NBWL and the Director, Wildlife Preservation (Addl. DGF (WL) is the Member Secretary of both NBWL and its Standing Committee. The constitution of the Standing Committee of NBWL may be seen at the following link:

http://www.moef.nic.in/sites/default/files/STANDING{b9cca8aede1995d450ecbb7cabdd9c806c66ba8f7afe5985dcdbcb8cb5055004}20COMMITTEE{b9cca8aede1995d450ecbb7cabdd9c806c66ba8f7afe5985dcdbcb8cb5055004}20OF{b9cca8aede1995d450ecbb7cabdd9c806c66ba8f7afe5985dcdbcb8cb5055004}20NBWL-{b9cca8aede1995d450ecbb7cabdd9c806c66ba8f7afe5985dcdbcb8cb5055004}20NOTIFICATION.pdf[PDF](165.9 KB)

3.       The meetings of the Standing Committee of NBWL have been held since its re-constitution regularly in every 2-3 months period. From August 2014 to March 2015, three meetings were held and considered 262 proposals both within and outside protected areas and 29 proposals on policy matters.

4.       Number of proposals considered by the Standing Committee of NBWL during three recent meetings as below:

S.No. Meeting Date Policy Matters Within Protected Area Outside Protected Areas
1 31st meeting  held on 12th 13th August 2014 13 90 76

 

2 32nd meeting held on 21st January 2015 4 25 28
3 33rd meeting held on 14th March 2015. 12 11 3
Total 29 126 107

ECO-SENSITIVE ZONES

The National Wild Life Action Plan (2002-2016) provided for declaring identified areas around Protected Areas and corridors as ecologically fragile under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, wherever necessary. The Indian Board for Wild Life on 21st January, 2002 considered Wild Life Conservation Strategy, 2002 and recommended that lands falling within 10 km of the boundaries of National Parks and Sanctuaries should be notified as eco-fragile zones under Section 3(v) of the Environment (Protection) Act and Rule 5  Sub-Rule 5(viii) & (x) of Environment (Protection) Rules.

The National Board for Wild Life reviewed the matter on 17th March, 2005 and recommended that delineation of eco-sensitive zones would have to be site specific, and relate to regulation, rather than prohibition, of specific activities. The following criteria, as proposed by the Ministry were agreed by the National Board for Wildlife for declaration of  Eco-Sensitive Zones around National Parks and Sanctuaries:

i.  Complete protection to endemic species in its entire range;

ii. Development processes not to reduce, damage or destroy the habitat  of critically  endangered or any other threatened species;

iii. Protection to biological corridors;

iv. Protection to highly complex and diversified ecosystems susceptible to irreversible damage, like coral reefs, mangroves, etc.;

v.  Sites associated with reproductive, breeding or nurturing behaviour of  rare and threatened species;

vi. Existence of pristine forests;

vii. Steep slopes ( more than 60º)

Section 3 of the Environment (Protection) Act 1986 gives power to the Central Government i.e. the Union Min­istry of Environment and Forests to take all measures that it feels are necessary for protecting and improving the quality of the environment and to prevent and control environmental pollution.  Eco-Sensitive Zones are notified and regulated accordingly under Section 3(2)(v) of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.

Ministry has been in engagement with the States/UTs on submission of ESZ proposals around the PAs. Meetings were held with representatives of States/UTs in January, February and April 2014 and in February, March, April and May 2015.

 Process adopted in the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change for notification of Eco-Sensitive Zones:

·   Proposal received are scrutinized in consultation with the Wildlife Institute of India.

·    After finalizing the draft notification, the same is got vetted legally after approval of competent authority and thereafter, published in Government Gazette and        also placed in public domain for 60 days in accordance with the Rule 5 of the Environment (Protection) Rules, seeking views of public.

· The views/comments/activities recommended are compiled and considered by the Expert Committee for finalizing the final notification to be issued under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.

·        The Expert Committee is a multi-disciplinary Committee comprising of subject expert institutions for examining the comments and finalizing the draft final notification based on the draft notification and the comments received thereon.

·         The draft  final notification thus prepared is again got vetted legally after approval of competent authority before it is finally published in the Government Gazette.

As per the Gazette Notification No. G.S.R. 513 (E) dated 28th June 2012, final notifications for eco-sensitive zones are to be issued within a period of 545 days, for those proposals for which comments have been received from the public, after the publication of preliminary notification.

Wildlife Crime Control Bureau

The Wild Life Crime Control Bureau has been created under Section 38Y of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972.  The mandate has been specified under Section 38(z) which includes collection, collation of intelligence and its dissemination, establishment of a centralized Wild Life crime databank , coordination of the actions of various enforcement authorities towards the implementation of the provisions of the Act, implementation of the international Conventions, capacity building for scientific and professional investigation, assistance to authorities in other countries for a coordinated universal action towards control of Wild Life crime and to advise the government on various policy and legal requirements.
Major activities carried out by the WCCB in the recent period are at: <http://wccb.gov.in/>

Central Zoo Authority

The Central Zoo Authority was created by the Central Government through an amendment of the Wild Life (Protection) Act in the year 1992.  The main objective was to enforce certain minimum standards and norms for upkeep and health care of animals in Zoos and to restrain mushrooming of unplanned and ill-conceived Zoos that were cropping up as adjuncts to public parks, industrial complex and highways.
Major activities carried out by the CZA in the recent period are at: <http://cza.nic.in/>

National Zoological Park

The National Zoological Park was set up on 1st November 1959 as per the decision taken in the 1st Meeting of the Indian Board for Wild Life in 1952. It is being directly managed by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India.
Major activities carried out by NZP in the recent period are at: <http://nzpnewdelhi.gov.in/>

Wildlife Institute of India

Wildlife Institute of India was established in 1982 as an attached office of the Ministry of Environment and Forests. Subsequently, it was granted autonomous status in 1986.  The institute is mandated by Government of India to carry out research on various aspects on Wild Life conservation, conduct training programmes for capacity building of Wild Life managers, build up repository of knowledge of Wild Life and provide technical and advisory services to the State and Central Governments in the country.
Major activities carried out by the Institute in the recent period are at: <http://www.wii.gov.in/>