What are the prospects of a new environment treaty (especially with regard to compliance and consequence)? What are the lessons learnt about effectiveness of “Soft” environment treaties – like KP?

Although KP has provisions for “compliance and consequence”, in practice the implementation has been rather unsatisfactory. The post 2020 arrangements may have similar provisions for “consequence and compliance” but all the developed country parties need first to be willing to take comparable and binding commitments under the new rules as currently applicable to KP Parties. Developing countries need not have a compliance regime even though the new treaty or Arrangement could apply to all Parties. This is because the targets of developing countries will need to continue to be voluntary and be subject to the some mechanisms like ICA which is non-intrusive and non- punitive.